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Everything You Need to Know to Pass the NEBOSH A1 Management Paper

HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ETC ACT 1974

Part 1 relates to HW&W at the workplace
Part 2 relates to EMAS
Part 3 relates to Building Regs
Part 4 contains misc. & general provisions

PRACTICABLE – capable of being carried out or feasible (given current knowledge, finance, information etc.)

REASONABLY PRACTICABLE – must be technically possible, and the risk assessed against the cost. Where cost is disproportionately high, can be deemed not to be reasonably practical.

H&S Inspectorate powers include: Investigation, Advisory, Enforcement (Imp. Not, Pro. Not, Seize/destroy substances/articles, Prosecute)

PART 1 HSWA

DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS
Section 2(1)
Employer must protect the HS&W at work of all their employees
Section 2(2)a
Provide & maintain plant & systems of work that are safe & without risk to health
Section 2(2)b
Ensure safety and absence of risks in the use, handling, storage and transportation of articles and substances
Section 2(2)c
Provide information, supervision & training to ensure the H&S of employees
Section 2(2)d
Provide safe place of work, safe access/egress, safe working environment
Section 2(2)e
Provide adequate welfare facilities and arrangements
Section 2(3)
Produce written H&S policy where 5 or more persons employed
Section 3(1) & 3(2)
Ensure that activities do not endanger persons NOT in their employment who may be affected by their operations
Section 2(4), (6) & (7)
Consult union safety reps & establish safety committee when requested by 2 reps
Section 9 Do not levy charge for anything provided in pursuance of the statutory provisions

DUTIES OF SELF-EMPLOYED
Section 3(2) & (3)
Same general duties as Employers through a general duty to ensure as far as reasonably practical that they and other persons are not exposed to risks to H&S

DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES
Section 7(a)
Exercise reasonable care for the H&S of themselves and others who their actions may affect
Section 7(b)
Co-operate with the employer
Section 8
Not to interfere with anything provided in the interests of HS&W

DUTIES OF MANUFACTURERS, DESIGNERS, IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS
Section 6(1)
Articles to be safe and without risk to H&S
Section 6(2)
Carry out tests, research etc. to provide adequate info on conditions to ensure its safety when in use
Section 6(3)
Similar as above but for installers and erectors
Section 6 (General)
Info on noise levels

SECTION 2 – Duties of employers to employees
SECTION 3 – Duties of employers to others
SECTION 4 – Duties of persons concerned with premises to others
SECTION 5 – Duties to control harmful emissions into the atmosphere
SECTION 6 – Duties of those producing articles for use at work
SECTIONS 7-9 – Duties that affect employees

Breaches of HSWA can lead to:
Max. £20K fine and/or 6 months imprisonment (Summary Conviction – Magistrates Court)
Unlimited fine and/or 2 years imprisonment (Indictable Offence –Crown Court)

Civil Law – Prosecution on Balance of Probabilities (Civil Law established by case precedence)

Criminal Law – Prosecution beyond all reasonable doubt (Statute & legislation)

THE SIX PACK REGULATIONS
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regs 1999 (MHSWR)
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regs 1992 (WHSWR)
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 (DSE Regs)
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (PPE Regs)
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (MHOR)
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER)

MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK REGS 1999
Regulation 3 Risk assessment (significant risks to be recorded)
Regulation 4 Implementation of protective or preventive measures:
1. Avoid risk
2. Evaluate risk
3. Combat risk at source
4. Adapt the work of an individual
5. Adapt to technical advances
6. Replace dangerous with non/less dangerous
7. Develop policy which influences the factors relating to working environment
8. Give collective measures priority
9. Give appropriate instructions to employees

Regulation 5 Make proper arrangements for all aspects of H&S
Regulation 6 Health surveillance (where appropriate)
Regulation 7 Appointment of competent persons
Regulation 8 Procedures to be developed for particular dangers which may arise (ie: fire)
Regulation 9 Information for employees
Regulation 10 Information to be provided to employees for:·
Identified risks·
Preventive/protective measures·
Procedures and name of nominated responsible person as required under Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regs 1997
Regulation 11 Where more than one employer, they must co-operate over H&S matters
Regulation 12 Working on other peoples premises – must provide them with info and details of risks etc.
Regulation 13 Employers to take into account employees capabilities
Regulation 14 Employees responsibilities to use tools and equipment etc safely
Regulation 16-18 New & expectant mothers
Regulation 19 Young persons

MANUAL HANDLING OPERATIONS REGULATIONS 1992
Injury
Includes muscoskeletal, cuts, bruises, broken toes etc.
Load
Anything to be moved (except tool when in use)
Manual Handling
Transporting, lifting, supporting, pushing, pulling, carrying, loading by hand or bodily force

Regulation 4 Requires employers to avoid manual handling and to undertake risk assessment
Regulation 5 Duty on employees to make full and proper use of all equipment provided

PROVISION AND USE OF WORK EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS 1998
Regulation 4 Equip to be suitable
Regulation 5 Properly and effectively maintained
Regulation 6 Inspections and recording of inspections
Regulation 7 Identified specific risks
Regulation 8 Information & instruction
Regulation 9 Training
Regulation 11-20 Deal with machine guarding – basically requires all dangerous parts of any machine or piece of equipment to be effectively and properly guarded at all times
Regulation 21 Suitable and sufficient lighting
Regulation 22 Must be Safe to maintain
Regulation 23 & 24 Markings an warnings
Regulation 25 to 30 Deal with plant and plant safety

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AT WORK REGULATIONS 1992
Regulation 4 Provision of PPE (Employers to ensure it is available and is suitable)
Regulation 5 Compatibility
Regulation 6 Assessment/Suitability – with regards to the nature of the task
Regulation 7 Properly maintained, cleaned or replaced; and that
Regulation 8 Suitable accommodation is provided
Regulation 9 Employees are provided with all necessary information, instruction and training
Regulation 10 Employees to use in accordance with training provided
Regulation 11 To report any loss or defects

THE HEALTH & SAFETY (DISPLAY SCREEN EQUIPMENT) REGS 1992
Regulation 1 Definitions (user – someone who habitually uses DSE)
Regulation 2 Risk Assessment of workstations
Regulation 3 Specific workstation requirements (ie: adjustable chairs, screens etc)
Regulation 4 Rest breaks
Regulation 5 Eyes and eye tests
Regulation 6 Training
Regulation 7 Provision of information

THE WORKPLACE (HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE) REGS 1992
Regulation 5 Maintenance of the workplace
Regulation 6 Ventilation
Regulation 7 Temperature
Regulation 8 Lighting
Regulation 9 Cleanliness
Regulation 10 Room dimensions and space (11m3 per person excluding area above 3m)
Regulation 11 Workstations and seating
Regulation 12 Condition of floors and traffic routes
Regulation 13 Falls or falling objects
Regulation 14 Windows and translucent surfaces
Regulation 15 Windows, skylights and ventilators
Regulation 16 Ability to clean windows etc safely
Regulation 17 Organisation of traffic routes
Regulation 18 Doors and gates
Regulation 19 Escalators and moving walkways
Regulation 20 Sanitary conveniences
Regulation 21 Washing facilities
Regulation 22 Drinking water
Regulation 23 Accommodation for clothing
Regulation 24 Facilities for changing clothes
Regulation 25 Facilities to rest and eat meals

AFR = No of lost time accidents x 100,000/No of man hours worked

AIR = No of work related injuries x 1000/Average No of persons employed

Severity Rate = No of Days lost x 1,000/Total No. of man hours worked

Mean Duration Rate = Total No of Days Lost/Total No of Accidents

Duration Rate = No of Man hours worked/Total No of accidents

4 C's
Competence
Control
Co-operation
Communication

5 Steps to Successful Safety Management: (HSG65)
1. Policy
2. Organisation
3. Planning and implementation
4. Measure performance
5. Audit and Review

Risk Assessment (5 Steps)
1. Identify Hazards
2. Identify Persons Exposed (particular attention to high risk groups – young persons, pregnant workers, disabled)
3. Evaluate Risks (Consider likelihood and severity) & Controls
4. Record the findings
5. Review and Revise

TYPES OF HAZARDS: CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL, ERGONOMIC, PSYCHO-SOCIAL

Job Safety Analysis (JSA) SREDIM

Process of identifying hazards in each component part of a job in order to assess the risk and decide on control measures for a SSW.

Stages are:
1. Select the job/task to be reviewed
2. Record – Identify and record the sequence of steps and/or
components in the process
3. Examine each component part of the job to identify the hazards/risks
4. Develop control measures
5. Install SSW/Control measures
6. Maintain. Carry out regular reviews.

LEGAL ECONOMIC MORAL
Planned Preventative Maintenance:
Frequency of maintenance
Statutory requirements
Manufacturers Recommendations
Operating Environment
Age and Condition of Machinery
Breakdown history
Frequency of use/operation
Critical components (effects of component failure)
Effect of failure
Timing of the works (ie: during shutdown periods)
Disruption
Maintenance staff competence
Cost benefit

Negligence:
It is a common law tort
Summarised as Careless Conduct/Breach of Duty of Care

Tests to be satisfied:
That a duty of care was owed
That there was a breach of that duty
That the breach led directly to the harm

Mechanical Hazards: Crushing, Shearing, Cutting/Severing, Entanglement, Drawing In, Ejection of Material, Abrasion, Stabbing/Puncturing

Non Mechanical Hazards: Noise, Temperature, Vibration, Electricity, Radiation, Hazardous Substances, Ergonomic Factors (inc. Manual Handling), Psycho-Social (Bullying, assault)

Noise at Work Regulations 1989
Leq – Continuous Daily Equivalent Noise Level (8hrs)
Lep,d – Daily Personal Exposure
A Weighting Scale –
Most commonly used, recognises that the human ear is less sensitive to low frequencies
Gives greater importance to frequencies sensitive to the Human Ear

Regulation 4 Assess Noise
Regulation 5 Competent person to complete the assessment
Regulation 6 Employer to reduce risk of hearing damage to lowest reasonably practical level
Regulation 7 Take steps to reduce noise exposure as far as reasonably practicable
Regulation 8 Provide suitable protective equipment
Regulation 9 Identify hearing protection zones and erect appropriate signage
Regulation 10 PPE to be repaired and maintained & PPE provided to be used
Regulation 11 Information, Instruction and Training
Regulation 12 Specifies action levels

COSHH Assessments:
Type of substance (Toxic/Harmful/Sensitiser/Irritant)
Chronic (prolonged exposure, long term effects)
Acute (Short term exposure, immediate effect)
Routes of entry into body (Absorbtion/indegstion/inhalation)
Concentration in relation to exposure limits
No of persons exposed (identify vulnerable persons)
Duration of exposure
Adequacy of control measures
Compliance with control measures

Hierarchy of Control:
Elimination by design
Substitution with less hazardous substance
Automation of process
Reducing exposure by process change
Engineering controls (ie: LEV)
Minimising exposure
PPE
Monitoring/Health surveillance

Permit to Work:
Permit title
Reference No.
Job location
Plant/Task identification
Description of work and any limitations
Identified hazards
Necessary precautions
Protective equipment
Authorisation
Acceptance
Extension
Hand back/completion
Cancellation

Risk Assessment: PEME
People, Equipment, Material, Environment

Develop a system: ERIC PD
Eliminate, Reduce (by Monitoring Substitution), Isolate, Control, PPE, Discipline

Human Factors: SPAME
Skill Personality Attitude Motivation Experience

Machine Hazards: ENTICCE
Entanglement Nips Traps Impact Contact Cutting Ejection

Manual Handling: TILE
Task Individual Load Environment

Machine Guarding: FIAT
Fixed or fixed distance Interlocks (elect, air, mech, hydr) Automatic Trip

Training: IITS
Instruction Information Training Supervision

Accident Factors: relate to Domino Theory
Attitude Fault Unsafe Accident Injury

Safety Management Systems (SMS) – HSG65

1. Policy – written statement of policy, procedures and commitment to HSW. Assigns responsibilities and explains duties etc.

2. Organising – structures to assist in:
- Control
- Co-operation
- Communication
- Co-ordination
- Competence

3. Planning and Implementation – establish, operate and maintain systems that:
- Identify objectives and targets
- Set performance standards
- Consider and control risks
- Document performance
- React to change
- Sustain positive safety culture

4. Monitoring – Active and Reactive systems:
Active: Measuring achievements against specified standards before things go wrong. Ensures controls are working correctly.
Reactive: Collection of information about failures. Involves learning from mistakes.

5. Review and Audit – Ensures policy is being carried out and is having the desired effect.

HAZARD PREVENTION
1. Eliminate the hazard
2. Substitution
3. Use of barriers (Isolation/segregation)
4. Procedures (SSW/Dilution)
5. Warning systems (Instruction/Training/Signs/Markings)
6. PPE

5 STEPS IN DEVISING A SSW (AIDIM)
1. Assess the task
2. Identify the Hazards and assess the risks
3. Definition of the Safe Method
4. Implementation of the SSW
5. Monitoring the System

MAINTENANCE ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY:
1. Poor Design
2. Poor perception of risk
3. No SSW
4. Poor communications
5. Failure to brief and supervise contractors

MAINTENANCE ACCIDENTS CAN BE PREVENTED BY:
1. Planning
2. Evaluation
3. Controls
4. Monitoring

Audit – looks at systems and the way they function in practice
Inspection – looks at physical conditions

6 PART STRATEGY TO CONTROLLING CONTRACTORS
1. Identify suitable contractors
2. Identification of hazards within specification
3. Contractor competence & selection
4. Contractor acceptance of H&S Rules
5. Control of contractors on site
6. Completion checks

SAFETY CULTURE (KEY ELEMENTS):
Good communications between and with employees and management
Ensuring a real and visible commitment to high standards by senior management
Maintaining good training standards to achieve competence
Achievement of good working conditions

WORKPLACE ISSUES
Ventilation: / 5l/s/person for mechanical systems
Temperature: 16-30oC (13oC for physical work)
Windows: Glass below shoulder height – safety glass
Cleanliness:
Working Space: 11m3
Seating: Ergonomic and adjustable
Slips/Trips/Falls:
Traffic Routes:
Welfare Facilities:
Toilets – Privacy/Ventilation/lighting/cleanliness/location/quantity
Washing facilities
Drinking water
Accommodation for clothing
Rest Facilities

WORK EQUIPMENT
1. Suitable for the purpose
2. Installed, located and used so as to reduce the risk to operators & others
3. Substances – safe supply and/or removal
4. Maintained
5. Inspected by competent persons
6. Information, instruction and training

TYPES OF GUARDS
Fixed
Interlocked
Control
Automatic
Distance guard
Adjustable
Self adjusting
Trip devices
Two handed devices

GUARD MATERIAL DEPENDS ON:
Strength/stiffness/durability
Effects on reliability (eg: closed guard causing M/C to overheat)
Visibility
Need to control secondary hazards (ie: Noise)

Hope this is of some use to all you NEBOSHers out there
Enjoy

Otto